Tag Archives: offshore product manager

Product Management Merry Go Round!

Musical ChairsSeveral years ago, when engineering hiring in dot-coms was peaking, you could see the same resumes making the rounds in top firms (Microsoft, Google, Ebay, Amazon and others) in India’s Silicon Valley.

Some years back, there was a great article in Forbes India that mentioned how the Top Honchos of Tech. MNCs in India keep rotating between the same firms, which led to limited value addition to these firms.

Now it seems product managers resumes are making the rounds in the same way. Many recruiters with such firms are pinging folks on LinkedIn with product manager designations, to fill vacancies in their organizations.

Here’s a true story of what happened with me.

A few months ago, I got a mail from a recruiter at a well-funded startup, offering a product management role. The profile was interesting, with a mix of product design and analytics for a cloud based offering, but it was an entry-level role so I replied back declining the offer to interview with them.

The next day, I got another email, which had the email ids of about 20 product managers from Amazon, Myntra, Ebay, Infoedge, Intuit, Microsoft, Walmart Labs, Flipkart etc. (My guess is that the recruiter wanted to bcc all of us, but messed up).

It said that the recruiter was happy to have made contact with us, and wanted us to refer folks from our companies if we were not directly interested in working in that product management role. Being curious, I looked at the profile for these folks copied on the mail with me. It became clear that most of these folks had:

1) B. Tech. or MBA from a Top College (IIT/NIT/ISB/IIM)

2) Worked in at least 2-3 different product management roles before their current one

3) Rotated between an MNC and a startup in their career, or between different MNCs

4) done at least one stint in a client facing role (marketing/sales/business development) or worked in the US

My guess is that many offshore MNC with a product manager opening will ping these same folks for the PM role (unless internal candidates are available). This may also indicate why many folks are unable to get a PM role in India, if they have not done it before. Finally, my guess is that these firms are also compensating PMs at similar levels which makes hiring easier.

The merits of this hiring strategy are debatable, but let’s leave that for another post.

Ask Me Anything – Within Reason

It is always great to hear from people who read this blog and have responded over email or comments. Sometimes you use real identities, other times it’s an alias. I am fine with both. If your questions are interesting or relevant, I will try to respond back quickly.

However, if possible, kindly provide some context before asking for for my opinion on questions such as:

  • How do I get more competitive compensation? (You need to share what you earn now and how you got there)
  • How do I get into product management? (What do you do today and what is your educational background)
  • How do I crack product management interviews? (There are hundreds of resources out there on this topic)
  • How do I grow in my career? (You need to provide your career and current job details)
  • I want to return from US and into a product management role in an offshore setup ( This is a mix of #2 and #4)

I try to answer most questions, but without details, you may not get a good response.

All the best in your career, and I look forward to answering more such questions.

(And no, I am not looking to connect on LinkedIn with readers from this blog)

What’s your Compa-Ratio?

A product manager’s CTC (cost to company) can have many components, which are mainly broken down into the following:

  • base salary
  • variable pay
  • retirals
  • stock (ESPP, RSU, Stock Grant etc.)
  • bonus (joining, annual, shipping bonus etc)

Knowing that there are so many CTC components makes it difficult to evaluate competing job offers or even “quote a salary”, as is commonly demanded by recruiters these days.

For offshore product managers, one way to benchmark your salary is to find out your compa-ratio at your firm. The Wikipedia link has the basic explanation of what a compa-ratio is, and how it is applied during recruitments and performance appraisals. In a large firm, this is the direct way to find out if you’re paid above average, at par, or below average. And actually, this also has a good correlation to your past performance, your relationship with managers and the industry performance as well. So knowing or guessing your compa-ratio puts you in a good situation during the salary negotiation time both within the firm or when you have an offer in hand.

For startups, smaller firms or Indian technology firms, you might not find this information from your HR contacts. In this case, one alternate is to trawl the web with queries such as “salary for X role” in “City Y” [ I get some traffic on the blog from these queries too!]. And thankfully, there is quite a lot of reasonably accurate information on this available in 2013, compared to the situation five years ago. These give some pointers on the potential offer, given your current compensation, the industry standards and the salary at the company in question.

One final thought, given the limited risk-reward situation in high-tech product management, it would be wise to only compare base salary as a lump and all variable components as another lump. I have posted about this before.

A Program Manager Can Be More Powerful Than A Product Manager

The title of this post may seem illogical to some. After all, the Product Manager (PM) is the one that leads product releases and is often responsible for product P&L (profit and loss). And a program manager (pm) simply tracks activities in MS Project. So how can a pm be more important than a PM?

I first heard this from a Director of Engineering at Microsoft, Seattle. He explained that in consumer products, it is very important to get the pulse of the market, and hence everyone listens when the PM talks about features, use cases, revenues, competitors etc. Whereas in enterprise products, there is often a vast pool of resources to manage that work to deliver a single product release on time and within budget. Hence the teams of pm become very important to the product line. And since they have fewer releases per year of enterprise products, the program manager has a more significant role to play there. Of course, the pm in Microsoft has a different role than a traditional industry pm. [ A description of MSFT program manager’s role in India is given here.]

In offshore roles in India, the prominence of the role of a pm and a PM depends on their level of independent responsibility. If either the pm or the PM’s reporting hierarchy is to the product line management (typically in the US) instead of India operations teams, then they have a strong and important role. Otherwise, given the typical scenario where you have offshore engineering centers, a pm coordinating engineering projects is sometimes more powerful than a product manager. In fact, having both product and program managers report to an Engineering Director is also not uncommon. This can occur in both consumer and enterprise software firms, and in both cases the pm can have a more prominent role than a PM.

So, if you’re researching on alternates to an operational product management role in India, a pm’s role is worth a closer look.

5 Reasons Why Engineering Teams Say “No”

As a product manager, you should be used to hearing “NO” from every stakeholder, including the engineering teams. Of course, if you are talking to a vendor, or an IT services firm, you face the other challenge of hearing a “YES” for everything.

With engineering teams, sometimes there is a hidden reason behind their refusal of a product/feature concept. Here are 5 reasons why PMs I know were not able to push through product requirements.

1. It’s Not Cool Enough

In the web world, certain technologies and features are considered cool. Others are not. So if you have a strong engineering team, they may simply nix the basic features such as logging, event viewer etc. in favor of features such as cross-domain APIs, “social” features etc. The trick is to keep a judicious balance in every feature review. And in case that’s not possible, just promise them that the “cool” features are coming down the road. And be careful about the ever-present “code conversion” projects where they want to migrate the code from HTML 4 to HTML5 and introduce SVG viewer and other features. Unless there is a business need or a strong performance reason, the “coolness factor” could be lurking.

2. It’s Too Tough

This is what I heard from an intern who joined the team. They had worked on a matrix based hierarchical organizational of real-time data for a year, and then they gave the same project to the intern to take analyze. Additionally, this was always the project that got de-prioritized over other initiatives. By sitting with the intern for an hour, it was easy to understand that this was an NP-complete problem, and optimizations were simply too tough for our data dictionary. (Here is a description of NP-complete).

3. It’s Too Easy

I have been in teams that often said no to easy fixes. After developing the core feature, however badly, nobody wants to simply fix all the bugs or add the security requirements. Again, the workaround is to offer a bundle of features, where they cannot pick and choose. By the way, these are the features that will slip the most in an early release, as they are deemed “non-core” features. Usually, the web-based GUI often falls in this bucket.

4. We Do Not Know That Technology

No true engineering team will agree to this, but this is also another hidden reason why teams say no. In one instance, the team had no idea of the internals of Oracle’s 11g release, so they simply delayed releasing a plug-in based on that. After several weeks of waiting and testing alternates, and with shipping of the core product getting delayed, this is the actual reason that came out during a hallway discussion with an engineer. The solution was to drop the plug-in and release the product.

5. If I Agree To This, I Will Look Weak

This is one of my favorites. Engineering managers in world-class organizations have a top educational background, have often won awards for their work and are viewed as stars. So if a great PM comes along with a perfect PRD, and has all the right features dictated by competitive needs, market analysis and user requirements, the engineering manager will simply say no to many features to satisfy his ego. (I do not know of any way to solve this problem, except to avoid entering such situations.)

As I have blogged about before, this is not about the quality of the PRD, but about saving face. The same feature set might be picked up later, after the PM has moved on.

7 Tips for Fresh MBAs working as Offshore Product Managers

[Caution: long post]

Today, most business schools prefer candidates with some work experience, which is also useful during lateral placements. Hence you see an increasing number of candidates with exposure to IT services or software engineering joining these schools and completing their MBA. Post-MBA, it is inevitable that some of them will head towards product management during campus placements or shortly afterwards. This post is about the 7 things to focus on in your first year on the job, apart from working on PRDs or MRDs.

1. Build a rapport with program managers

In most offshore R&D centers, program managers play a key role in organizing projects, resources and schedules. Hence they know the resource costs and availability for any ongoing or upcoming project. And since engineering dominates decision-making in ODCs (offshore development centers), the program managers help to balance the engineering dominance.

2. Get customer exposure on a sales call

An enterprise sale is a complex process, involving dozens of people from different departments, and it typically has a long completion cycle. You must gain a first hand exposure to how this works, as this is the main source of revenue for the firm and for your product line. However, it can be difficult to gain a sales person’s attention, as he is always looking outwards for opportunities. As an incentive to sales folks to get them to talk to you, arrange a product demo or a feature presentation. If the demo is interesting enough, they will make sure that you get in front of the customer.

3. Gain the trust of engineering and service delivery managers

I have written previously about key stakeholders for offshore product managers. If you cannot get these people to trust you, you will never be able to drive product decisions, even with your supervisor’s help. And you cannot keep going to him all the time. One good technique to gain the engineering trust is the show them that you can deliver on the product requirements and are not simply there because of your MBA. Essentially, you need to prove yourself with every engineering resource, right from the VP to the intern.

4. Train yourself

If you are just coming out of b-school, with a few years of pre-MBA IT experience, you have NO relevant skills whatsoever. The people in the ODC do not care that you can prepare kick-ass powerpoint. Neither are they interested in the font, color or direction of arrows in you block diagram. You must focus on gaining survival skills, which today include, UI design using HTML, CSS and Javascript, UML and MS Visio usage, basic analytics, and programming skills in at least C++, Java or PHP. There is a lot more to gaining skills in multiple dimensions, and I will cover this in a future post.

Do not bother to go for a formal product management training yet. Without relevant experience, it will have very little value and you will forget most of it very soon.

5. Prepare for a change to your role/product within 12 months

In today’s connected, global economy, it is almost guaranteed that your first role will last no more than 12 months. The change could be due to external forces or internal restructuring (ODCs are very prone to this), but it will definitely happen. In the worst case, you might feel stagnating in your role, and you will yourself ask for or start looking out for a change. The best way to survive this is to shine in front of senior management, build a rapport with the US teams and network with HR and other support staff.

6. Connect with Solution Sales, Analytics, Customer Service Teams

This is probably the most important task that you can perform outside of self-training. To understand how the product is built, you need to sit with engineering teams. To understand how the product is sold, you need to work with sales teams. And if you really want to understand how the product is used, you need to work with solution sales, analytics and operations and customer service teams, who cover all real use cases that the product was designed for. And remember, you need to proactively seek them out and learn from them. As a fresher, it is expected that you will be learning all the time.

7. Network outside the firm

There are a lot of opportunities for networking in Bangalore, Hyderabad and all the other major tech. centers in India. You must go to these get-togethers (a few of them are listed in the resources section of the blog). It can be a lonely job, working as a product manager, with no outbound teams near you. Connecting with other people in similar situations is a good way to understand the challenges of an offshore product management role, and the different ways in which people are coping.

Summing Up

A product management role, even offshore, can be incredibly rewarding, but only if you take care of your first few years on the job. It is not for everyone, and you should make sure that you are still interested in it at the end of your first year. Else, as an MBA, it will be easy to find something else.

“Are You Really A Product Manager?”

Background

Over the years, I have faced many product management interviews with all sorts of firms. A few of these have been with entrepreneurs in India who have launched multiple businesses and have been the CEO of their own firm for more than 10 years. In my experience they are some of the shrewdest people I have interviewed with, and they have a really good grasp of what skills and talent they need in a candidate.

The Incident

This happened during a discussion with a CEO in 2012, who runs an enterprise software firm with clients in the US, EU and APAC regions. The job advertised was for an enterprise software product manager.

As is usual, the interview start with the standard “tell me about yourself”. I gave a summary of my career so far, with details about my work in different roles and the related tasks and initiatives. During my description, I could see him adopting a quizzical look. So once I finished my narrative, I waited for him to take the lead and ask some questions about my background. I was taken aback when he said (paraphrasing here), “the work you have done sounds wonderful, but are you really a product manager?”

headscratcherI was flummoxed, and did not understand why he asked this. I have worked in product management with 2 large enterprise software firms, and that is the relevant part of my work life which I had described to him in the past few minutes. I asked him to explain what he meant, and he said that while the work of building products is important, what is also important is the amount of time spent with sales, pre-sales, account management, clients, prospects, marketing and all outward facing teams. And this is what I had glossed over (according to him).

Now the reason I did that is because the role advertised was for an inbound product manager, and there is little to connect what he wanted to hear and what I was to be hired for. I explained to him that I have done every product management task in my earlier roles (including the rarity in India, product pricing) and since he has a vacancy in an inbound role, that is what I spoke about.

He clarified that hee was really not interested in what I had to contribute on product design and engineering, and his main concern was “Can you manage the pricing, packaging and promotion of the product successfully?”. He wanted someone who could work with anyone in his organization, to get the product “out of the door”. In his mind, those are the traditional success metrics in any product management role. And that is what he wanted to hear about. Needless to say, I did not see a way to bridge this expectation gap, and did not get the job.

Traditionally, this is how senior management uses product managers, especially for enterprise products, and if you only have offshore product management experience you will probably never fit into one of these India headquartered organizations. So unless you have exposure to outbound activities as well, you will remain a one-dimensional product manager, with little possibility of getting a job in an India based startup. This career shift is important, as it is the a surefire way to get a leadership role in the technology industry.

So think about your own career, and ask yourself, “Are you really a product manager?“.